Volume 8 (2016)
Nguyen et al.: A clinic-based pilot intervention to enhance diabetes management for elderly Hispanic patients
Authors: Annie L. Nguyen, Marco Angulo, Linda L. Haghi, Maya Cruz, Nahal Nikroo, Sarah Peraza, Justin Bennink, O. Kenrik Duru, Alison A. Moore, and Laura A. Mosqueda
Abstract: Background and objectives: Successful diabetes self-management requires behavioral and lifestyle changes. However, low-income patients may face challenges related to poverty that make it difficult to engage in lifestyle changes. We piloted an intervention designed to help older, low-income, Hispanic, patients with diabetes access free or low-cost community resources to enhance diabetes self-management. Results from this pilot intervention are reported. Design and Methods: Patients were recruited at baseline to complete surveys assessing diabetes self-care activities, diabetes self-efficacy, and general self-efficacy. Volunteers were trained by a clinic social worker to help patients identify needs and make referrals to local community resources (e.g., housing, transportation, food, clothing, dental and prescription services, employment, or family social services). Identical surveys were administered at 3-month follow-up. Results: 28 patients were recruited at baseline and 18 patients completed the follow-up assessment. No significant changes in diabetes care and self-efficacy were detected. All patients requested at least one referral to a community resource. The most common requests were for low-cost dental clinics, food assistance, and housing support. At follow-up, nine (50%) patients contacted their given referrals. Conclusions: The need for assistance with basic social services is high in this population. The rate of referral uptake (50%) is high for a relatively low intensity intervention. Since the completion of the pilot, the program has trained 21 volunteers and helped over 220 patients in a primary care clinic. Using a volunteer model and creating connections to existing community resources is a cost-conscious way to deliver needed services to patients.
Krischer et al.: “Chemistry is Toxic, Nature is Idyllic” – Investigation of Pupils’ Attitudes
Authors: Daniela Krischer, Philipp Spitzer, and Martin Gröger
Abstract: Although many natural phenomena are based on chemical processes, most people think that chemistry and nature are strict contrasts, with chemistry as the evil and nature as the good aspect of the scale. At the University of Siegen, we carried out different quantitative and qualitative studies to gain a detailed impression of this antagonism. To get insight into the pupils’ unconscious attitudes towards chemistry and nature we collected data with a semantic differential scale. In order to investigate the pupils’ view of chemistry and nature we used a questionnaire with open questions. The results reveal the expected antagonism and show interesting ideas of the pupils regarding their concepts of nature and chemistry.
We present an attempt to overcome this antagonistic view: Teaching chemistry in nature can be an opportunity to immediately experience and interpret chemical phenomena in order to close the gap between chemistry and nature and build a personally meaningful, exciting and motivating way to chemistry. In the discussion part, two possibilities for this kind of innovative chemistry education are presented.
Elster et al.: The Risk of Nano-Particles in Deodorants - How Literate Are Young People?
Authors: Doris Elster, Mara Sozio, Marie Eschweiler, Julia Schindler, and Anja Voigt
Abstract: In this empirical study the risk literacy of young people in the context of nanotechnology is investigated. Therefore, a Risk Literacy Model (RLM) based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo  is developed. The RLM differentiates between the processing of information regarding risk assessment, which is based on either a deeper cognitive analysis (central route), or on the use of peripheral cues (peripheral route). Target group are 12th Graders (N = 245) from Bremen and Lower Saxony. The prerequisites of central information processing, risk propensity and risk literacy are measured using a questionnaire with closed and open response formats. Risk propensity is measured before and after presentation of a short scientific text and several evaluative statements by institutions or fictitious individuals on nano-particles in everyday products. The results show that the adolescents’ risk literacy is very low. However, the risk propensity of the participants decrease considerably through the reception of the information presented. It is recommended that risk literacy should be more promoted in the science curriculum.
Körner et al.: An Approach to Doping of the Future - Doping and Anti-Doping in Elite Sports
Authors: Swen Körner, Marcel Scharf, and Annika Steinmann
Abstract: The paper opens with a sociological perspective on the doping phenomenon found in elite sports. Elite sports and its inherent logic of comparisons are consequently followed by permanent aspired enhancement that may lead to doping. Constitutive of these scientific findings, an overview of an anti-doping best practice model for young athletes is presented. Finally, the genesis of doping and the presented best practice model are correlated with each other.